Perfect tenses are named thus because they refer to actions that are finished with respect to the present or some other time under consideration ; for example, "I have eaten all the Present perfect refers to an action which is, as of now, completed.
We have eaten at that restaurant many times. We have lived in Sapporo for eleven years. Modern Portuguese differs from Spanish in that the auxiliary used is normally ter Spanish tener rather than haver Spanish haber.
However, it has a grammatical form that is constructed in the same way as is the present perfect in English, Spanish, and Portuguese by using a conjugated form of usually avoir "to have" plus a past participle.
Standard Spanish is like modern English in that haber is always the auxiliary regardless of the reflexive voice and regardless of the verb in question: Spanish[ edit ] The Spanish present perfect form conveys a true perfect aspect.
Sie sind Present perfect They have fallen, literally they are fallen. He has, as you know, already been nominated twice for the Sakharov Prize, which this Parliament awards each year.
With no context, listeners from Spain would assume that the latter occurred yesterday or a long time ago.
That usage describes for how long or since when something has been the case, normally based on time expressions with "for" or "since" such as for two years, since The present perfect in English is used chiefly for completed past actions or events when it is understood that it is the present result of the events that is focused upon, rather than the moment of completion.
The tense may be said to be a sort of mixture of present and past.
Then, the present perfect continuous form is often used, if a continuing action is being described. In the grammar of languages such as Latin and Ancient Greek, the form most closely corresponding to the English "present perfect" is known simply as the perfect. She has studied Japanese, Russian and English.
However, other tenses are still as in Spanish: However, as seen above, not all uses of present perfect constructions involve an idea of completion. It always implies a strong connection with the present and is used chiefly in conversations, letters, newspapers and TV and radio reports.
Sie ist geschwommen She has swum, literally, she is swum. Du hast dich beeilt You have hurried, literally You have yourself hurried French[ edit ] French has no present perfect aspect.
In Castilian Spanishhowever, the present perfect is normal when talking about events that occur "today". German[ edit ] Modern German has lost its perfect aspect in the present tense.
In fact this "flawless" sense of perfect evolved by extension from the former sense, because something being created is finished when it no longer has any flaws. The present perfect form is often called in German the "conversational past" while the simple past is often called the "narrative past".
It has rained a lot this year.
Furthermore, the meaning of the present perfect is different from that in Spanish in that it implies an iterative aspect. When a past time frame a point of time in the past, or period of time which ended in the past is specified for the event, explicitly or implicitly, the simple past is used rather than the present perfect.
Ich habe gegessen I have eaten Du bist gekommen You have come, literally you are come. Portuguese[ edit ] The Portuguese present perfect form conveys a true perfect aspect. The French simple past form, which also conveys perfective aspect, is analogous to the German simple past in that it has been largely displaced by the compound past and relegated to narrative usage.The written lesson is below.
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The present perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb “has” or “have” with the past participle. I have studied.
He has written a letter to María. We have been stranded for six days. Because the present. Let's review the present perfect indicative tense in Present perfect and look at present perfect indicative conjugations and present perfect indicative endings. Definition of the present perfect tense The present perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the past.
The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more interested in the result than in the action itself. The present perfect tense refers to an action or state that either occurred at an indefinite time in the past (e.g., we have talked before).
The present perfect is a grammatical combination of the present tense and perfect aspect that is used to express a past event that has present consequences. The term is used particularly in the context of English grammar to refer to forms like "I have left". The forms are present because they use the present tense of the auxiliary verb have, and perfect.
Exercises on Present Perfect. The present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has an influence on the present.Download