In the early thirteenth century, a Fourth Crusade was organized but was beset with financial troubles, leading to the diversion of the Crusaders from the original destination of Egypt to Constantinople, which was conquered by the Turks.
The letters written during the Crusades have also been found by critics to be quite revealing. Throop has examined the poetry and songs written during the thirteenth century, demonstrating the way in which these verses represent the subtle opposition of their authors to the papal policies on crusading.
War was a "sacred duty" and, as a result, the Crusades "encouraged the most horrible violences of fanaticism" He also paints a horrible portrait of what is happening to the Christians.
Regardless, the Pope was extremely successful in generating a sense of unity among the people along with a desire to rid the world of those that might do harm to Christians.
While the later Crusades were undertaken for mercenary reasons, the early Crusades were "inspired by genuine religious piety and were carefully orchestrated by the revived papacy" The great accomplishment of the Fourth Crusade was not capture of Jerusalem but Constantinople.
Craig likes to remind us that "hot blood and greed" Craig were also motivating factors behind the Crusaders. The year marks the beginning of the Crusades.
This might be where the positive affects of the Crusades ends. The Third Crusade was called for when Saladin conquered Jerusalem in Thatcher concentrates on the Latin sources, and he assesses the historical value of extant letters and eyewitness accounts.
This became a major weak point when the Crusaders invaded the holy lands. Saladin allowed this, which says much about his tolerance and demeanor. He also concludes his speech by telling his audience, "Accordingly undertake this journey for the remission of your sins, with the assurance of the imperishable glory of the kingdom of heaven" Causes, Consequences, and Results Several centuries after they ended, the Crusades are remembered as wars that were fought and lost in the name of God.
This is undeniable evidence that the Knights were on pursuit for personal gain rather than a religious war. He tells his listeners that "Jerusalem is the navel of the world; the land is fruitful above all others, like another paradise of delights" This proved that the Christian leader were untrustworthy.
Here we see an example of unintended consequences working in favor of a bad event or choice.
While Thatcher, Runciman, and others study the contemporary sources of the Crusades for historical accuracy, other critics consider these sources—as well as the poetry, songs, and chronicles of the Crusades—in light of their literary and social value.
This mentality worked well for the pope. The military achievements of the First Crusade have been attributed to the weak and isolated nature of the Muslim forces.
In the later crusades, popes were determined to "take a more active role in planning Crusades, right down to setting objectives" Another field of scholarly interest is the search for contemporary evidence of propaganda used to influence the attitudes of Christians toward the Crusades.
The popes, Morris has argued, were aware of the persuasive power of visual imagery, particularly on the illiterate. Expansion was prevalent and, as a result, the economy was improving greatly from the turmoil it had experienced in The reason is that the Christians showed restraint for many years when their pilgrims were harassed and threatened by the Muslims.
But there are some examples that the Christians have the right to go on the Crusades.
The Byzantines were seeking aid primarily from the Turkish threat and when Pope Urban II offered to lend help, many soldiers were eager to help rid the land of the infidels.
He summoned help from preachers and military leaders and in just over a year, they produced "fifty galleys and transports, a tribute to the awesome capabilities of the Venetian shipyards" NobleFrom the first crusade being a holy pilgrimage for military and religious reasons, the following crusades were for personal gain, power, and wealth.
Also, the distance between Europe and the Holy Land gradually took a toll on the Christians in the later crusades. The problem lies in the crusades that followed. New princes and nobles of the newly found provinces were to battle each other for power, money, and right to trade routes.
The Crusades are often called a "successful failure" for many reasons. The first crusade out of the four main crusades came out as a success. The first crusade did conquer Jerusalem at first until it was taken back from them. The other three main crusades ended up as a failure, but the most embarrassing crusade was the fourth for the Christian crusaders fought, attacked and killed other Christians, then stole and looted.
"The Crusades: series of wars by Western European Christians to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims." (Encarta "Crusades") The Crusades first began in and ended in the late 13th century.
The term Crusade originally meant that the European's would use all their efforts to regain the power from the Muslims. They wanted to retake. - Crusades The Crusades began in when Urban II preached the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.
The reason for such a mass following of people to leave their homes and travel to the Holy Land to fight is unknown. George W. Cox has studied the precursors to the Crusades, demonstrating the relationship between the pilgrimages to the Holy Land that preceded the Crusades and the Crusades themselves.
Other critics, such as G. P.
R. James, have focused on the history of a particular Crusade.Download